Oware → French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish.

Other Names: Abapa, Adji,
Kui, Aghi, A-i-ú, Alé, Aualé,
Awalé, Aware, Awari, Awélé,
Ayo, Ayoayo, Ayo Olopon,
Coastal Oh-Wah-Ree, Dagbo-
prou, Huri, Kale, Kboo, Kpoo,
Kuoless, Langa-holo, Òrè, Ori,
Ôrim, Orôá, Oura, Oure, Ouri,
Ouril, Ourin, Owani, Owari,
Poo, Uale, Uali, Uri, Urim,
Urin, Urinca, Wahree, Walé,
Walle, Waré, Wari, Warra,
Warri, Wa-wee, Woaley, Woll,
Wolo, Wora, Wori, Woro
First Description: Richard
Jobson, 1620
Cycles: One
Ranks: Two
Sowing: Single laps
Region: Western Africa,
Caribbean, South America
Oware in France. Red: tournaments; blue: other events.

Oware is the national mancala game of Ghana, and the particular name "Ɔware" is that given by the Akan speaking people there. This game or closely related variants are played in most of West Africa (Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, West Central Africa (Cameroon, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo), the Caribbean (Antigua, Barbuda, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, US Virgin Islands; possibly also on Martinique and Saint Kitts) and South America (Brazil, Guyana, Suriname). Perhaps it was also known by plantation slaves and their descendants in the USA (see Warra). Nowadays, the game is very popular in immigrant communities in Europe and the USA (New York) and is increasingly enjoyed by native Europeans, mostly in England, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. A variant specifically designed for children is sold in Germany under the name Apfelklau ("apple pilfer").

The game plays an important role in the Epic of Sundjata (c.1210-1255 or 1260), the first king and founder of the Mali Empire. It also appears to have been mentioned by the English traveller Richard Jobson who had been in Gambia in 1620. He wrote in his account Golden Trade (1623):

"In the heat of the day, the men will come forth and sit themselves in companies, under the shady trees, to receive the fresh aire, and there passe the time in communication, having only one kind of game to recreate themselves withall, and that is a peece of wood, certaine great holes cut, which they set upon the ground betwixt two of them, and with a number of some thirty pibble stones, after a manner of counting, they take one from the other, untill one is possessed of all, whereat some of them are wondrous nimble."

A famous legend tells that, after the battle of Feyiase, the Juaben king Yiadom Adarkwa killed Ntim Gyakari, the king of Denkyira, when he played a game of Oware against his wife with golden counters. Since then golden counters are associated with misfortune. The game spread to Cape Verde, the Caribbean and South America through the slave trade.

Playing oware in kumasi.jpg
Oware players in Kumasi, Ghana

The game has become in recent decades an important mindsport. Tournaments are held every year in Western Africa, many European countries, and in Antigua and Barbuda in the Caribbean. In 2009, 810 students participated in an Oware tournament held in Mataro, Catalonia.

African Oware boards are often carved from Osese wood (Holarrhena floribunda) and the most elaborate ones adorn the collections of ethnographic museums in the whole world. The boards sold on Ebay or African markets, however, are mostly low-quality designs, specifically made for tourists who are travelling back to their country again and which were therefore described as "airport art". The counters are typically nickernuts.

A closely related variant called Awari was created by computer scientists in the 1990s. It was solved in 2002 by the Dutch researchers John W. Romein and Henri E. Bal. They proved that perfect play is a draw. A public Java applet, the Awari Oracle, is based on data found by Romein and Bal.

Origin of the Name

Ashant architecture.jpg
1817, Picture of traditional Empire of Ashanti architecture with two men playing Oware, by Thomas E. Bowdich
"The Akan term Oware was acquired from the famous king of the Ashanti kingdom called Katakyie Opoku Ware I (1700-1750) Katakyie who usually used this game to settle dispute between married couples particularly when they were on the verge of separation. This would happened after the king and his elders had managed to settle the case and they would charged the couple to sit down together and entertain themselves with this game. The servants in the king's palace would be singing songs whilst this game was in progress. In the end, the Ashanti realized that the king needed an honour for utilizing this game to repair family issues. Hence, the O was taken to preceed the Ware to form "Oware". Ware in Akan (Ashanti) means "marry". This Oware game was played most in the king's palace and after the troubled family had finished playing that game, there was no way they would seldom understand each other."

An Ashanti Legend


Following are the rules for the Abapa (Twi for: "the good stone") variation, considered to be the most appropriate for serious, adult play.

The game requires an Oware board and 48 seeds.

A typical Oware board has two straight rows of six holes, called "houses", and optionally one large house at either end. Each player controls the six houses on his side of the board, and owns the store on his right.

Initially there are four seeds in each hole


Initial Position

Players take turns moving the seeds.

On a turn, a player chooses one of the six houses under his control. The player removes all seeds from that house, and distributes them, dropping one in each house counter-clockwise from this house.

If the starting house contained 12 seeds, it is skipped, and the twelfth seed is placed in the next house.

If the last seed was placed into an opponent's house that brought its total to two or three, all the seeds in that house are captured and placed in the player's store (or set aside if the board has no stores).

If the previous-to-last seed also brought an opponent's house to two or three, these are captured as well, and so on.

However, if a move would capture all an opponent's seeds (often after a full sowing around the board known as "Grand Slam"), the capture is forfeited, and the seeds are instead left on the board, since this would prevent the opponent from continuing the game. A variation common in Africa and promoted by the Ivory Coast champion allows Grand Slams to capture, if they result in the cumulative capture of more than 24 seeds (thus ending the game).

The proscription against capturing all an opponent's seeds is related to a more general idea, that one ought to make a move that allows the opponent to continue playing. If all houses of the opponent are empty, the current player must make a move that gives the opponent seeds ("to feed").

The game ends, when a player can't move at the start of his turn or when the game has been reduced to an endless cycle that is a board position repeats with the same player to move and seeds on either side of the board.

If the game ended because a player couldn't move, his opponent captures all seeds that are still in his holes.

If the game ended because seeds continued to circle around the board and no player could capture them, they are divided between the players, when each one of them has seeds on his side. Each player gets the seeds, which are in his holes.

Sometimes it is agreed that the game should end as soon as one player has captured 25 or more seeds, or each player has taken 24 seeds.

The player who captured more seeds wins the game. The game is a draw, when both players have captured 24 seeds.

Special Rules for Matches

Oware is often played in a match, which consists of several games, especially on tournaments.

  • In Antigua, players usually try to be the first one to win 6 games or they try to win 3 more games than their opponent.
  • In international tournaments, the goal is often to be the first player who wins 3 or 5 games (three in Cannes, France).
  • Yoruba players try to win 3 games in a row.
  • The Akan in the Ivory Coast tried to achieve 5 victories in a row, but today their goal is to win 3 games out of a match of 5.
  • In Kumasi, players try to be the first one who wins 5 games.


Ori (1).jpg
Oril on Santagio (Cabo Verde)
  • In most of the Caribbean to capture is to cut.
  • In Antigua, the leftmost hole is called foot, the rightmost head and the hole next to the head, throat or neck.
  • Usually the holes are called houses, but in Antigua a house is a kru
  • Heavily loaded holes are known graniers, kru, kroo, krou, Aklou, odu, etc.
  • A capture initiated by a kru is usually called "grand slam". In versions, where the rules permit it, a grand slam is also the act of capturing all 6 houses of one's opponent.
  • If seeds are dropped into an opponent's kru so that it contains too many of them to be still useful is called to rot it.
  • A kru is said to be mature, when it could reach the opponent's side.
  • In Barbados, the seeds are called horse nickers, which is supposed to come from arsenicals because the seeds contain some arsenic.
  • Giving seeds to an opponent whose holes are empty is to feed him.
  • The seeds and the game often share the same name.

Oware Endgames

Problem 1


South to move and win. What is the shortest solution?

Problem 2


South to play and win! (Víktor Bautista i Roca, 2008)

Problem 3


South to play and win! (Víktor Bautista i Roca, 2008)

Shortest Game

This is the shortest game ever recorded (19 moves). It was played between Ralf Gering (first player) and a beginner (second player) on on January 13, 2010:



"When you play Warri with God, you get no seed."
From Antigua.

"By the time the fool has learned the game, the players have dispersed."
From Ghana.

See also


Adewoye, I. O. & Awoniyi, S.A.
Towards Obtaining Computer Programs for Playing the African Game of Ayo. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Theory, Methods and Practice of Programming, Badagry (Nigeria) 1985.
Agbalajobi, F. B., Cooper, R. L. & Sonuga, J. O.
Investigation into the Use of the African Board Game, Ayo, in the Study of Human Problem-Solving. In: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP Conference on Optimization Techniques: Modeling and Optimization in the Service of Man, Part I. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science). Springer-Verlag, London (England) 1975; 40: 368-387.
Agudoawu, K. C.
Rules for Playing Oware, Abapa Version. Winston Publishing Company, Nashville TN (USA) 1995.
Ajao, C. A.
Ayo (Letter to the Editor). In: Nigerian Field 2005; 70 (2): 172-173.
Ajila, C. O. & Olowu, A. A.
Games and Early Childhood in Nigeria: A Critical Focus on Yoruba Traditional Children's Games. In: Early Child Development and Care 1992; 81 (1): 137-147.
Akinyemi, I. O., Adebiyi, E. F. & Longe, H. O. D.
Critical Analysis of Decision Making Experience with a Machine Learning Approach in Playing Ayo Game. In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 2009; 32: 49-54.
Allis, L. V., Meulen M. van der & Herik, H. J. van den
Databases in Awari (Abstract). In: Levy, D. N. L. & Beal, D. F. (Eds.). Heuristic Programming in Artificial Intelligence 2. The Second Computer Olympiad. Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands) 1991, 73-86.
Amiand, L.
Book Review: Strategies des Joueurs d'Awale. In: International Journal of Behavioral Development 1993; 16 (3): 510.
Le Jeu d'Awalé. In: Balafon: Pour une Meilleure Connaissance de l'Afrique Noire / Air Afrique 1983; 59: 9.
International Warri Festival Ends With Awards Ceremony Last Weekend. In: Antigua Sun 2001 (November 7).
Locally Produced Film Gets Extended Stint at Deluxe. In: Antigua Sun 2004 (January 5).
Local Team Brings Home Traditional Games Trophies. In: Herald 2004; 18 (46), 6.
Antiguans Dominate International Warri Tourney. In: Antigua Sun 2005 (September 22).
Warri Festival Kicks Off This Weekend. In: Antigua Sun 2005 (October 29).
Antigua and Barbuda Headlines International Warri Tournament. In: Antigua Sun 2007 (December 5).
‘No Seed’ Makes World Television Premier. In: Antigua Sun 2008 (January 9).
Remise des prix du tournoi d'awalé au collège Gayant. In: La Voix du Nord 2008 (June 25).
Anonymous. How to Play Owari. In
Educator Newsletter 2009; 1 (1): 6-7.
Warri- The Oldest Surviving Game. In: Caribarena News 2009 (November 2).
Capitalise on the Warri Potential. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (August 19).
Correction - Warri. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (September 29).
Warri Grandmasters Promote Antigua & Barbuda in Kazakhstan. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (November 15).
Taxi Stand Warri Tournament Warming Up. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (December 20).
King George V Taxi Stand Warri Results. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (December 21).
Top Guns Clash in King George Taxi Masters’ Warri Tourney. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (December 23).
King George Taxi Stand Warri competition continues. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (December 24).
‘Urkle’ Secures Class A Warri Honours. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (December 28).
Masters Begin Quest for Top Honours in King George Taxi Warri Tournament. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (December 30).
‘Bewe’ Out-soars ‘Triple’ in Masters Warri Play. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (December 31).
Double Victory for ‘Pubie’. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (January 3).
Masters’ Warri Battle Continues. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (January 4).
‘Tipple’ Mascal Claims Masters’ Warri Title. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (January 5).
Prime Minister’s Knockout Warri Tournament Begins. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (January 7).
Warri Association to Be Officially Launched at Prize Giving Function. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (January 22).
Warri Association Meeting. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (January 28).
Warri Players to Discuss Game's Future. In: Antigua Barbuda Sports Network (ABSN) 2011 (January 31).
Warri Meeting Invites New Players. In: Caribarena News 2011 (February 1).
Sports Ministry Facilitates Discussion on Warri. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (February 2).
Interim Committee Selected to Oversee Formation of Warri Association. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (February 12).
Massiah Happy to Attain ABWA Presidency. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (March 26).
New Date Announced for Warri Festival. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (May 30).
ABWA Warri Festival Set to Commence Tonight. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (June 11).
Results of Independence Warri Tournament for Matches Played on October 29. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (October 31).
Independence Warri Tournament in Full Swing. In: Antigua Observer 2012 (October 20).
National Warri Team are World Champs. In: Caribarena News 2012 (November 14).
World Warri Championships to be Staged in Antigua. In: Antigua Observer 2013 (August 22).
Warri Association announces week of championship activities. In: Antigua Observer 2013 (October 15).
Anumba R. O.
Towards Programming Small Computers for AYO Game: Methods and Strategies. In: ACM SIGSMALL/PC Notes 1986; 12 (4): 36-57.
Avelot, R.
Le Ouri. In: Bulletin et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris 1908; 9: 9-22.
Ayeni, J. O. A. & Longe, H. O. D.
Game People Play: Ayo. In: International Journal of Game Theory 1985; 14 (4): 207-218.
Ayeni, J. O. A., Longe, H. O. D., Uwadia, C. O. & Job, V. O.
The Game of Ayo on the Computer. In: Nigerian Journal of Science 1990; 24: 164-166.
Ballou, K.
Règles et Stratégies du Jeu d’Awalé. Nouvelles Éditions Africaines, Abidjan (Ghana) 1978.
Ballou, K.
A Guide for Playing the Game of Woaley: A Fascinating Ancient African Game of Strategy. Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan (Ivory Coast) 1984.
Baptiste, N.
Warri Has Benefits Say World Champs. In: Antigua Sun 2005 (September 23).
Baptiste, N.
Simon: Warri Needs Home and Chance to Grow. In: Antigua Sun 2005 (September 24).
Baptiste, N.
Antigua’s Simon is World Warri Champ. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (September 27).
Baptiste, N.
Warri Players to Form New Club/Association. In: Antigua Observer 2010 (December 29).
Baptiste, N.
‘Slow Play’ Claims Prime Minister’s Knockout Warri title. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (January 10).
Baptiste, N.
Warri Players Seek to Have Constitution Ratified. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (March 3).
Baptiste, N.
Warri Players to Reattempt Ratifying of Constitution. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (March 10).
Baptiste, N.
Warri Executive in Place as Constitution Ratified. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (March 23).
Baptiste, N.
Warri Association to Host First Official Competition. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (April 8).
Baptiste, N.
‘Rat-Buster’ Captures Cool & Smooth Warri Festival. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (June 17).
Baptiste, N.
Simon Captures Sixth Swiss International Warri Tournament. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (September 21).
Baptiste, N.
Top Warri Players Indicate Changes Needed in Present Association. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (September 22).
Baptiste, N.
Warri Association to Host Presidency Elections. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (October 11).
Baptiste, N.
Elected Warri Head Wants to Take Game Global. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (October 24).
Baptiste, N.
ABWA to Hold Independence Warri Tournament. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (October 25).
Baptiste, N.
Barton Captures Independence Warri Tournament. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (November 3).
Baptiste, N.
Warri Association Still Awaits Simon’s Apology. In: Antigua Observer 2011 (December 23).
Baptiste, N.
Warri Association to Host Whit Monday Competition. In: Antigua Observer 2012 (May 23).
Baptiste, N.
Whit Monday Warri Tourney A Success. In: Antigua Observer 2012 (May 30).
Baptiste, N.
Warri Squad Selected for Swiss Tournament. In: Antigua Observer 2012 (October 25).
Baptiste, N.
PM Spencer Opens International Warri Festival. In: Antigua Observer 2013 (October 30).
Baptiste, N.
Warri Champs Embrace Triumph, But Crave Stronger Competition. In: Antigua Observer 2013 (November 13).
Baptiste, N.
Warri to fill empty positions. In: Antigua Observer 2014 (May 21).
Baptiste, N.
Lucrative warri tournament on the horizon. In: Antigua Observer 2014 (July 4).
Barker, D.
Appropriate Methodology: An Example Using A Traditional African Board Game to Measure Farmers' Attitudes an Environmental Images. In: The IDS Bulletin 1979; 10 (2): 37-40.
Bartel, N.
Sundjata. As told by a Jali (Storyteller)] 2001.
Bautista i Roca, V.
Juguem a l'Aualé: Manual del Curs Juguem al Waria. Barcelona (Spain) 2000.
Béart, C.
A Propos du Jeu de l'Awele: Diffusion ou Convergence?. In : Notes Africaine, 1947; 33 (1): 13-14.
Béart C.
Jeux et Jouets de l'Ouest Africain (Mémoires de l’Institut Français d'Afrique Noire N° 42, Tome II). IFAN, Dakar (Senegal) 1955, 475-516.
Béart, C.
Le Jeu de l'Aouélé. In: Education Africaine, Nouvelles Série 1950, n° 5.
Bedu-Addo, J.
Oware. Published by the author, undated.
Bertaggia, A.
Ouré. In: Il Fogliaccio degli Astratti 2011; 56 (July): 23-24.
Beugré, F.
Apprenons à Jouer à l'Awalé: Sept Variantes du Jeu Traditionelle le Plus Populaire en Côte d'Ivoire. Abidjan (Ivory Coast) 1999.
Brenz Verca, Fra R.
L'Antico Gioco della Semina. In: Missionari Cappuccini Rivista 2002; 42 (12).
Brette, J.
Un Jeu pour Vos Vacances: L'Awélé. In: Éducation et Informatique 1983; 16: 25-28.
Briere, B. & Briere, J.
Awele. Université de Paris, Vincennes (Paris) 1986.
Broline, D. M. & Loeb, D. E.
The Combinatorics of Mancala-type Games: Ayo, Tchoukaillon, and 1/pi. In: The UMAP Journal 1995; 16 (1): 21-36.
Buffonge, C.
HAMA’s ‘No Seed’ Premieres in Montserrat. In: Antigua Sun 2002 (December 30).
Caleb-Browne, A. A.
BODY FOUND …Well-known Warri Player Pulled from Sea. In: Antigua Sun 2007 (June 1).
Chamberlin, D. B.
How to Play Warri. Published by the author, Lancaster PA (USA) 1984.
Chemillier, M.
Éléments pour un Ethnomathématique de l'Awélé. In: Math. Sci. hum / Mathematics and Social Sciences 2008; 46 /181 (1): 5-33.
Christian, S.
Taxi Drivers Warri Tournament: A Tremendous Success. In: Antigua Art, Artists & Culture (Johnson's Point, Antigua) 2003.
Collins, G. N.
Kboo: A Liberian Game. In: The National Geographic Magazine 1910; 83 (11): 944-948.
Daoud, M., Kharma, N., Haidar, A. & Popoola, J.
Ayo, the Awari Player, or How Better Representation Trumps Deeper Search. In: Congress on Evolutionary Computation 2004: 1001-1006.
Dauer, A. M. & Rutz, W.
Luz, H. & Herz, W.: Baga (Westafrika, Guineaküste) Mankallaspiel. Film E 383 des IWG Göttingen 1961. (Publikationen zu wissenschaftlichen Filmen, Sektion Ethnologie. Serie 8, Nummer 26/E 383.). Institut für den Wissenschaftlichen Film, Göttingen (Germany) 1978.
Davis, J. E. & Kendall, G.
An Investigation, Using Co-Evolution, to Evolve an Awari Player. University of Nottingham (England) May 2002.
Davis, O.
Seeds Part of Oldest Game. In: The Daily News (American Virgin Islands) March 3, 1995.
Davis, O.
From Burning Beans to Ancient Game: At Reader's Urging, Wahree is explained. In: The Daily News (Virgin Islands) April 7, 1995.
DeAraujo, C. G.
Bean Counters: Cape Verdean Game Requires Logic, Math. In: The Standard-Times 31th January, 1999.
De Graft Hanson, J. O.
The Golden Oware Counters. Tema: Ghana Publishing Corporation (Ghana) 1991.
Deledicq, A.
Le Jeu de Toute l'Afrique. In: Jeux & Stratégie 1981; 2 (n° 7): 14-19.
Deledicq, A. & Deshayes, P.
Exploitation Didactique du Wari. In: Cahiers d'Études Africaines 1976; 16 (3-4): 467-488.
Deledicq, A. & Deshayes, P.
Exploration de l'Espace du Jeu avec de Plus Grosses Machines. In : Cahiers d'Études Africaines 1976; 16 (3-4): 495-497.
Deledicq, A. & Popova, A.
Wari et Solo: Le Jeu de Calcul Africain. Cedic, Paris (France) 1977.
Depradine, C.
Neurowarri: Using Evolutionary Computation to Develop Warri Strategies. In: Caribbean Journal of Mathematical and Computing Sciences 2001; 11.
Deshayes, P.
Mathématiques et Mankala. In: Cahiers d'Études Africaines 1976; 16 (3-4): 459-460.
Deshayes, P. & Gautheron, V.
Les Petits Ordinateurs Jouent au Mankala. In: Cahiers d'Études Africaines 1976; 16 (3-4): 489-493.
Donkers, H. H. L. M.
Comments on the Awari Solution. In: ICGA Journal 2002; 25 (3), 166.
Draghi, C.
Warri. L'antico gioco africano della semina e del raccolto. Si. Lab, Florence (Italy) 1999.
Drew, H.
University Professors Undertake to Understand Warri. In: Antigua Sun 2007 (August 31).
Eglash, R.
Discrete Self-Organization in Owari. In: African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. Rutgers University Press, Piscataway (New Jersey, USA) 1999, 101-108.
Fraga, A. & Santos, T.
Ouri, um Jogo Mancala. In: Educação e Matemática. 2004; 76 (1): 9-11.
Gbado, A. & Gbado, B.
Une Partie d'Awalé. Ruisseaux d'Afrique, Kindonou (Benin) 2007.
Gobet, F.
Using a Cognitive Architecture for Addressing the Question of Cognitive Universals in Cross-cultural Psychology: The Example of Awalé. In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2009; 40 (3).
Goot, R. van der.
Awari Retrograde Analysis. In: Rijswijk, J. van (Ed.). Computers and Games: Second International Conference, CG 2001, Hamamatsu, Japan, October 26-28, 2000, Revised Papers. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science). Springer-Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg (Germany) 2001; 2063: 87.
Graça, A.
Jogo de Oril: Regras, Estratégias e Teorias. Edição da ONDS (Organização Nacional da Diáspora Solidária), Mindelo (Cabo Verde) 1998.
Griaule, M.
L'Arche du Monde chez les Populations Nigériennes. In: Journal de la Societé des Africanistes 1948; 18 (1): 117-126.
Günther, B.
Mancala, Wari, Awélé: Ein Brettspiel aus Ghana (Seminararbeit). Institut für Vergleichende Kulturforschung (Philipps-Universität Marburg), Marburg (Germany) 2003.
Hall, M. I.
Warri: Antigua's Mancala Game. Berkeley (USA) 1974.
Hardy, P. A.
Count and Capture: Warri in Barbados. February 22, 1999 (updated March 2001).
Helldörfer, C.
Zwölf Mulden sorgen für Hochpannung. In: Nürnberger Zeitung July 7, 2011.
Herskovits, M. J.
Wari in the New World. In: Man: The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 1932; 42: 23-37.
Hill, E.
HAMA’s No Seed Opens to Rave Reviews. In: Antigua Sun 2002 (November 25).
Hill, E.
Tourism Minister Pleased With HAMA’s ‘No Seed’. In: Antigua Sun 2002 (November 26).
Humpidge, K. P.
An African Game. In: Nigeria (Lagos) 1938; 16: 300 & 302.
Jackson, L.-V.
Antigua Commercial Bank Sponsors International Warri Competitor. In: Antigua Sun 2003 (March 5).
Jacobs, Z. E.
Preserving "Wahree". In: Virgin Islands Education Review 1984: 1; (12): 3 & 25.
Jacobs, Z. E.
Oware (Wahree): African Game for Young and Old. In: Agriculture and Food Fair of the Virgin Islands, V. I. Department of Agriculture & The College of the Virgin Islands 1985: 79-80.
Jones, V.
Why Warri? In: Caribbean Beat 1993; Issue No.6 - July/August 1993.
Joseph, C.
Former warri PRO calls for Philp’s resignation. In: Antigua Observer 2013 (July 31).
Kaiser, H.-R., Keller, B. & Loesch-Berger, M.-C.
P-Awélé: Un Programme Jouant à Partir des Plans (Bulletin de Recherche No 46). Psychologisches Institut Universität Freiburg, Freiburg (Switzerland) 1984.
Khan, S. U. & Ahmad, I.
Some Preliminary Results on Three Board Games. In: Bulletin of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science 2004; 84: 159-166.
Klobah, M.
Sowing the Seeds of Knowledge in Children's Literature: Sociocultural Values in J. O. de Graft Hanson's The Golden Oware Counters. In: Children's Literature Association Quarterly 2005; 30 (2): 152-163.
Kouadio, W.
L'awélé (Document ronéotype). Abidjan (Ivory Coast) 1981.
Kovach, R. P.
Oware: The National Game of Africa. Morrison Quick Print, Oakland CA (USA) 1995.
Lasebikan, E. L.
Brazilians Adopt Yoruba Game. In: West Africa 1963; Nr. 2391, 352.
Lenox-Smith, I.
Mancala. In: Games & Puzzles 1974; 3 (26): 10-12.
Lenox-Smith, I.
Oware. In: Games & Puzzles 1974; 3 (27): 16-17.
Lenox-Smith, I.
Oware and Its Variations. In: Games & Puzzles 1974; 3 (28): 12-13.
Lincke, T. R. & Marzetta, R.
Large Endgame Databases with Limited Memory Space. In: Journal of the International Computer Games Association 2000; 23 (3): 131-138.
Lincke, T. R. & Goot, R. van der.
Marvin Wins Awari Tournament. In: Journal of the International Computer Games Association 2000; 23 (3): 173–174.
Lincke, T. R.
Exploring the Computational Limits of Large Exhaustive Search Problems (Doctoral Thesis). Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland) 2002.
Lombard, C.
Les Jouets des Enfants Baoulé. Quatre Vents, Paris (France) 1978.
Luca, C.
Libri sugli Awele [Review]. In: Il Fogliaccio degli Astratti 2006; 30 (February): 1.
Luca, C.
Problemi astratti, Awele. In: Il Fogliaccio degli Astratti 2006; 35 (August): 1.
Marsland, T. & Frank, I.
Learning from Perfection: A Data Mining Approach to Evaluation Function Learning in Awari. In: Rijswijk, J. van (Ed.). Computers and Games: Second International Conference, CG 2001, Hamamatsu, Japan, October 26-28, 2000, Revised Papers. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science). Springer-Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg (Germany) 2001; 2063: 115-132.
Medica, H.
No Seed - A Success at the Box Office. In: Antigua Sun 2004 (January 14).
Medica, H.
Optimist Hosts Warri Workshop and Competition. In: Antigua Sun 2004 (April 24).
Meulen, M. van der, Allis, L. V. & Herik, H. J. van den
Lithidion, an Awari-playing Program (Technical Report CS 90-05). Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands) 1990.
Migeod, F. W. H.
A View of Sierra Leone. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd., London (England) 1926, 281-283.
Muller, H. R.
Warri: A West African Game of Skill. In: The Journal of American Folklore 1930 (169); 43: 313-316.
Murray, H. J. R.
A History of Board-Games other than Chess. Oxford University Press, Oxford (England) 1951, 181-183.
Musa, A.
Predicting Ayo Game Strategy Using Neutral Network-Based Refinement. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken (Germany) 2010.
Mve-Ondo, B. M.
L'Owani et le Songa: Deux Jeux de Calculs Africains. Découverts du Gabon. Centre Culturel Français Saint-Exupéry & Sépia Editions, Libreville (Gabon) & Paris (France) 1990.
Newberry, R. J. 
Games and Pastimes in Southern Nigeria. In: Nigerian Field 1939; 8 (2): 75-80.
N'Guessan, A. G.
Mécanismes d'Apprentissage de l'Awélé: L'Apprentissage d’un Jeu de Stratégies Typiquement Africain (l'Awélé) chez les Adolescents et des Joueur d’Échécs Suisse. Éditions Universitaires, Fribourg / Freiburg FR (Switzerland) 1992.
N'Guessan, A. G.
Awéle: Acquisition des Tactiques et des Stratégies. In: Bureau, N. & de Saivre, D. Apprentisage et cultures: Les Manières d'Apprendre. Colloque de Cerisy, Cerisy (France) 1987, 206-220.
Nogueira, G.
Ouril: Douze Boca Quarenta e Oit Dent. In: Novo Jornal Cabo Verde 1994; ano 1, n° 96: 8.
Noguero Galilea, C.
Decision Making System for the Game Oware. Home University: Facultad de Informática de Madrid (Spain) & Institut für Algorithmen und Kognitive Systeme (IAKS), Fakultät für Informatik der Universität Karlsruhe (Germany) March 23, 2004.
Odeleya, Chief A. O.
Ayo: A Popular Yoruba Game. Oxford University Press, Ibadan (Nigeria) 1979.
O'Donnell, C. & Lougheed, V.
Adventure Guide to Belize. Hunter Publishing, Walpole MA (USA) 2003, 335-336.
Ofori-Atta, B.
Ancient Ghanaian Games of Oware: How to Play. o. J.
Olugbara, O. O., Adewoye, T. O. & Akinyemi, I. O.
An Investigation of Minimax Search for Evolving Ayo/Awari Player. In: ICIT’06. ITI 4th International Conference on Information & Communications Technology, Cairo (Egypt) 2006.
Olugbara, O. O., Adigun, M. O., Ojo, S. O. & Adewoye, T. O.
An Efficient Heuristic for Evolving an Agent in the Strategy Game of Ayo. In: ICGA Journal 2007; 30 (2).
Owona, S. M.
L'Awalé. Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris (France) 2005.
Owona, S. M.
Les Jeux des Calculs Africains. Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris (France) 2007.
Pingaud, F.
Awélé. L'impensé Radical, Paris (France) 1988.
Pingaud, F.
L'Awélé: Règles de Jeu. Éditions Bornemann, Paris (France) 1996.
Pingaud, F. & Reysset, F.
Awélé: Le Jeu de Semailles Africaines. Chiron Éditeur, Paris (France) 1993.
Popova, A.
Les Mankala Africains. In: Cahiers d'Études Africaines 1976; 16 (3-4): 444-445.
Poulsen, D.
Mancala. In : Games & Puzzles 1972; 1 (6): 19-22.
Powell, A. B. & Temple, O. L.
Seeding Ethnomathematics with Oware: Sankofa. In: Teaching Children Mathematics 2002; 7 (6): 369-375.
Quaynor, N. & Annan, J.
Oware: A Computing Instrument. CAN (Nigeria) 1990.
Quaynor, N.
Oware: Africa's Forgotten Mechanical Computer. NBS Multimedia, Accra (Ghana) 2007.
Querino, M. R.
A Raça Africana e Os Seus Costumes. In: Vol. 1o dos Anais do 5o Congresso Brasileiro de Geografia 1916, 88.
Raabe, J.
L'Awélé. Éditions de la Courtille, Paris (France) 1972.
Ralston, R. D.
Change and Migration of a Game Called Mankala/Warri in Africa and America during the Colonial Period. African Studies Center, Boston Ma (USA) 1992.
Rattray, R. S.
Religion and Art in Ashanti. Oxford (England) 1927, 382-390.
Retschitzki, J., Keller, B., & Loesch-Berger, M.-C.
L'Influence du Matériel et du Niveau des Joueurs sur la Rétention de Configurations du Jeu d'Awélé. In: Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive 1984 (4); 4: 335-361.
Retschitzki, J., Loesch-Berger, M.-C., Gut, U. & Brülhart, M.-L.
Les Relations entre l'Evolution Cognitive et la Force au Jeu d'Awele chez les Baoules de Côte d'Ivoire (Bulletin de Recherche No 52). Psychologisches Institut Universität Freiburg, Fribourg / Freiburg (Switzerland) April 1985.
Retschitzki, J., N'Guessan Assandé & Loesch-Berger, M.-C.
Etude Cognitive et Génétique des Stratégies des Joueurs d’Awélé. Exposé présenté au "Eighth Biennial Meeting of ISSBD", Tours (France) July 1985.
Retschitzki, J., N'Guessan Assandé & Loesch-Berger, M.-C.
Etude Cognitive et Génétique des Styles des Joueurs d'Awélé. In: Archives des Psychologies 1986 (211); 54: 307-340.
Retschitzki, J.
L'Apprentisage des Stratégies dans le Jeu d’Awélé (Bulletin de Recherche No 59). Psychologisches Institut Universität Freiburg, Fribourg / Freiburg (Switzerland) June 1986.
Retschitzki, J.
L'Apprentisage des Stratégies dans le Jeu d'Awélé. In: Bureau, N. & de Saivre, D. Apprentisage et Cultures: Les Manières d'Apprendre. Colloque de Cerisy, Cerisy (France) 1987, 188-205.
Retschitzki, J.
Evidence of Formal Thinking in Baoule Awele Players. In: Keats, D. M., Murro, D. & Mann, L. (Ed.). Heterogenity in Cross-cultural Psychology. Swets Zeitlinger, Amsterdam (Netherlands) 1989: 234-242.
Retschitzki, J.
Stratégies des Joueurs d'Awélé. Édition L'Harmattan, Paris (France) 1990.
Retschitzki, J.
Strategies of Expert Awele Players. In: Neuwahl, N. (Ed.). Proceedings of the International Colloquium "Board Games in Academia III". Florence (Italy) 2000, 84-94.
Reysset, P. & Pingaud, F.
Awélé, le jeu de l'Afrique. In: woxx 2000; 566 (December 8): 12.
Richaud, J. L.
Et Si On Jouait à l'Awalé sur TRS 80? In: L'Ordinateur Individuel 1982; 43: 184-187.
Romein, J. W. & Bal, H. E.
Awari Is Solved. In: ICGA Journal 2002; 25 (3), 162-165.
Romein, J. W. & Bal, H. E.
Solving the Game of Awari Using Parallel Retrograde Analysis. In: IEEE Computer 2003; 36 (10): 26-33.
Santos, C. P. dos, Neto, J. P. & Silva, J. N.
John Conway + Ouri. Norprint, Lisbon (Portugal) 2007.
Santos Silva, E.
O Ouri: Um Jogo Caboverdiano e a Sua Prática em Portugal. Associação de Professores de Matemática, Lisbon (Portugal) 1994.
Sawyer, W. W.
The Game of Oware. In: Scripta Mathematica 1949; 15: 59-63 & 159-161.
Sheldon, D.
Wari: Strategy in Every Move. In: Faces 1985; 4 (1): 24-26.
Signahodé, P.
Adji, Le Défi: Un Jeu Africain Venu des Temps Lointains. Dicolor, Quetigny (France) 1997.
Sutherland, E. T.
Playtime in Africa. Atheneum, New York NY (USA) 1962.
Tchakounte, A.
Jeux: L’ABC d’Awalé. In: Cameroon Tribune February 2006.
Torrey, V.
Old African Numbers Game. In: Science Digest 1963; 53(1): 54-57.
Verstoep, K., Maassen J., Bal H. E. & Romein, J. W.
Experiences with Fine-grained Distributed Supercomputing on a 10G Testbed.. In: 8th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. CCGRID '08, 19-22 May 2008, 376-383.
Voogt, A. J. de.
Mancala: Games that Count. In: Expedition 2001; 43 (1): 38-46.
Voogt, A. J.
A Question of Excellence: A Century of African Masters. Africa World Press, Inc., Trenton NJ (USA) & Asmara (Eritrea) 2005, 89-99 & 187-202 & 251-253.
Williams, P. A.
African board game arrives in Jamaica. In: The Gleaner November 17, 2012.
Zaslavsky, C.
Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture. Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, Boston (USA) 1974, 101, 118-120 & 132-133.
Zaslavsky, C.
Math Games and Activities from Around the World. Chicago Review Press, Chicago IL (USA) 1998.
Zwernemann, J.
Das Mankala-Spiel bei den Fon und Ewe. In: Afrika und Übersee 1983; 66: 141-147.


Problem 1

3, 5, 4!!, 6, 5!, 1, 6 South got 25 seeds and wins.

Problem 2

1 or 3!

Best moves:

1!, 2, 3!, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6 (+10), 6 - South captures the nine remaining seeds.

3!, 2, 1!, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6 (+10), 6.

3!, 2, 4, 3, 1!, 4, 5, 5, 6 (+10), 6.

3!, 2, 4, 3, 5, 4, 1!, 5, 6 (+10), 6.

Problem 3

One solution:

6!, 2, 4, 1, 5, 2, 1, 3, 3, 5, 2, 4, 4, 5, 3, 6, 6, 2, 5, 1, 4, 3, 2, 2, 1, 4, 3, 3, 2, 5, 4!, 4, 3, 5, 5!, 1, 6 (+1), 1, 4, 2, 5, 3, 6, 6, 1, 2, 2, 1, 4, 3, 3, 5, 2, 4, 4, 6, 1, 5, 3, 6 -- South wins the last four seeds and the game.

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.