Mancala World
Carolina Solitaire
Inventor: Andrej
Andreev, 1997
Ranks: One
Sowing: Reverse
Region: Bulgaria,

In 1997, Prof. Andrey Andreev, a Bulgarian mathematician from the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics in Sofia, introduced Carolina Solitaire to mathematicians of the University of South Carolina. This reverse sowing game is a variant of Bulgarian Solitaire.


The game can be played with any number of (imagined) pits that are ordered in a row. Initially there are some seeds (or cards arranged in piles) in each pit, the exact number can be varied.


A Possible Initial Set-up

The game is played by one player.

Each move the player takes one seed from every non-empty pit (empty pits are ignored) and puts them in a newly created pit at the end of the row, always in the same direction.

The game ends when the board position repeats.


Griggs, J. R. & Ho, C.-C.
The Cycling of Partitions and Compositions under Repeated Shifts. In: Advances in Applied Mathematics 1998; 21: 205-227.


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By: Ralf Gering.
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